Way of Action
Antimalaria is a combination of two medical plants (Ocimum kilimandscharicum X
Basilicum purpurescens ; Caesalpina bonduc) with known activities against
plasmodium species with golden seal (Hydrastis canadensis) that partly works on the
immune system and inhibits (mainly by berberine species) the efflux pump that
causes a multi drug resistance. A pepper extract (piper nigrum) acts as a bioactivity
The single plant extracts are prepared as quantum dots (Gradl 2008; Gradl 2011)
making very small quantities of the extracts possible.
One of the problems of malaria treatment is that plasmodium quickly can become
resistant to drugs. By a membrane pump the reflux quickly enhances (Quellette,
Légaré, Papadopolou 2001). This resistance shares many phenotypic features with
multidrug resistance of mammalian tumour cell lines (Martin et al. 1987). By using
verpamil it was possible to restore partially sensitivity to anti-malaria drugs.
Golden seal being well known as an anti-malaria herb contains isoquinoline alkaloids
like hydrastine, berberine, berberstine, hydrastinine, tetrahydroberberastine,
canadine and canalidine. Golden seal can inhibit by some or all of them the cellular
pump being responsible for resistances.
Ocimum species contain eugenol (1-hydroxy-2-methoxy-4-allylbenzene) being
responsible for its action against plasmodium (Prakash, Gupta 2005).
Caesalpina species contain diterpenes of cassane and norcassane types with activity
against plasmodium (Linn et al 2005).
Gradl T: Von der Mikronisierung zum Quantenpunkt. Neue Technologien in der Phytotherapie; CoMed 01; 102-105 (2008)
Gradl T: Boundary layer techniques in Biotechnology and their application, Ganesh Media (2011) (www.boundary-layer-biotech.com)
Krogstad DJ, Gluzman IY, Kyle DE, Oduola AM, Martin SK, Milhous WK, Schlesinger PH: 1987. Efflux of chloroquine from Plasmodium falciparum: mechanism of chloroquine resistance; Science 238: 1283-1285. (1987)
Linn TZ, Awale S, Tezuka Y, Banskota AH, Kalauni SK, Attamini F, Ueda J, Ashi PBS, Syafruddin D, Tanaka K, Kadota S: Cassane- and Norcassane-type diterpenes from Caesalpina crista of Indonesia and their antimalaria activity against the growth of Plasmodium falciparum; J Natural Products (2005)
Martin SK, Oduola AM, Milhous WK; Reversal of chloroquine resistance in Plasmodium falciparum by verapamil. Science. 235: 899-901.(1987)
Ouellette M, Légaré D, Papadopoulou B : Multidrug Resistance and ABC Transporters in Parasitic Protozoa;J. Mol. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 3(2): 201-206 (2001).
Prakash P, Gupta N: Therapeutic use of Ocimum sanctum Linn (Tulsi) with a note on eugenol and its pharmaceutical actions: a short review; India J Physiol Pharmcol 49(2) 125-131 (2005)